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Tridosha:- Vata Pitta Kapha

Ayurveda:-Life Science

Man has been trying to cure diseases since ancient times. At that time the Acharya developed a system of medicine based on herbs and the right lifestyle which was named Ayurveda. 

The word Ayurveda means: Ayur means life and Veda mean science collectively known as the science of life. In simple words, Ayurveda is the science to live life properly.

Due to the basic composition of Ayurveda in Sanskrit, people face a lot of difficulty in understanding the basic rules of Ayurveda. People know the words like Dosha, Guna, Rasa and Prakriti associated with the Ayurvedic method but in reality they do not understand the true meaning of these words. 

Therefore, it is our endeavor that through our articles we can explain the basic principles of Ayurveda properly and provide complete information related to it.

During treatment in the Ayurvedic method, the ayurvedic doctor not only looks at the symptoms of the disease but also takes into consideration the state of your mind, nature, doshas (Vata-pitta-Kapha), and dhatus. 

This is the reason why, despite suffering from the same disease, different patients may have different medicines according to their nature and fault. Now it comes to what are these doshas, state of mind (Mann), nature (Prakriti), and dhatus? Let us first understand what the doshas is.

What is Tridosha’s theory?

When you go to an Ayurvedic doctor for treatment, they say that you have this problem due to increased Vata in your body or due to increased pitta. 

But have you ever thought what these vata, pitta, Kapha are? 

And what is the harm to the body as they increase?

Our body is made up of five elements (water, air, fire earth, and sky). According to Ayurveda, the health of the body depends mostly on these three things: Vata Pitta and Kapha. If these three are in a balanced state in the body, then you are healthy, if any of these are disturbed, then diseases start to occur. For this reason, they have been called ‘dosha’. Due to the number of these defects is three, they have been called Tridosha.

वायुः पित्तं कफश्चेति त्रयो दोषाः समासतः॥६॥
विकृताविकृता देहं घ्नन्ति ते वर्तयन्ति

Which means – Vata, Pitta and kapha are the three Doshas of our body. Perfect balance of three Doshas leads to health, imbalance in Tridosha leads to diseases.

Each dosha consists of 2 elements out of the five elements mentioned above and the symptoms of these doshas are determined based on the nature of those elements. For example, Vata dosha is made up of these two elements (air+sky) Vayu and Akash. 

There are two main reasons for the imbalance of doshas, the first increase in these doshas and the second decrease in them. By the way, diseases are caused by the increase in doshas, because if the doshas itself is in a state of deficiency, it will not be able to produce the disease.

Due to your poor lifestyle and diet, their effect varies and these are the main causes of diseases. Think of it like that if you are eating more things that increase Kapha dosha then you are more likely to get diseases related to Kapha dosha.

Actually, our body is made up of these three doshas, dhatus and mala and in this also the dosha is considered to be the most important. When these three doshas remain balanced then the body remains healthy. If any one of these is disturbed, then you can become a victim of some disease. These three doshas themselves get contaminated and also affect the dhatus and feces (mala) and cause disease in the body. Therefore, balancing these doshas is the first sign of being healthy.

In Ayurveda, there is shloka which give a similar message 

Samadosha samagnisch samadhatu malakriya
Prasanna atma mana swastha iti abhidhiyate”

It says: A healthy life is defined by a balanced Doshas, Agni, and Dhatus (tissues), normal functioning of Mala and waste products, and cheerful state of Atman (soul).

For example, if “Vata” gets out of balance it can lead to an overactive mind, poor circulation, poor neuro conduction, loss of memory, irregular elimination, uncomfortable menses, and other issues related to movement.

When “Pitta dosha “, our digestive fire gets out of balance, this can lead to heartburn, stomach acid excess, and other symptoms related to heat and digestion.

When “Kapha dosha ” is out of balance it can cause chronic congestion, weight gain, and cellulite. It can also lead to cholesterol build-up and acne.

To restore balance and restore health, herbs in combination with diet, meditation, routine, and exercise are used. Ayurveda doesn’t focus on reducing symptoms; it focuses more on improving health. There is no room for illness where there is health.

Now let’s discuss about their place in our body and how it affects our daily life:

ते यापनोऽप नायोरधोमयोव संया: ॥ वयोऽहोराभु तानां तेऽतमयादगा: मात ।् te vyāpino’pi hṛnnābhyoradhomadhyordhva saṃśrayā: || vayo’horātribhuktānāṃ te’ntamadhyādigā: kramāt |

Although the Tridosha can be found all over the body they are most prominent in certain parts.  The top part up to the chest is dominated by Kapha Dosha, pitta dominates between chest and umbilicus, below Vata is dominated below the umbilicus.

Similarly, in a person’s life, day and in night (separately), Kapha dominates the morning, Pitta dominates the afternoon, and Vata the evening.

Same like eating and during digestion, the process is also similar the first, second and third parts are dominated by Kapha, Pitta and Vata respectively.

Qualities of vata: 

  • Vata is dry, cold, short, subtle and devoid of stickiness. 
  • Rukshana means dryness etc. is natural properties of Vata. 
  • Due to the balance of Vata, the flow of blood and faeces and urine flow properly in the body.
  • The movement of fluids, food, nutrients etc. inside body, and the gastrointestinal tract is due to Vata.
  • Locomotion activities such as walking, limb movements are due to Vata.

Qualities of pitta:

  • Pitta Dosha is often compared to fire.
  • A little oily and unctuous. To light a fire, you will need oil or ghee to fuel the flames. The fire will grow if you add oil to it and that’s the reason pitta is responsible for digestion part. 
  • Pitta can penetrate deep into the body tissue because it is composed of fire and water.
  • Pitta Dosha – Hotness – All warm factors of the body are influenced by Ushna.For example, the digestion and body temperature also.
  • Pitta Dosha influences all metabolic activities that generate energy.
  • Pitta is also increased when there is an elevation in temperature (e.g. fever).
  • Lightness – Pitta is made up of fire and water components. The fire part is more important than the water, so lightness is also a quality.
  • Bad breath – Pitta Dosha is often responsible for bad breath. Pitta can also influence bad smells in urine and faeces.
  • Pitta also has fluidity and liquidity.  

Qualities of kapha:

  • Unctuousness and oiliness – The oily factor provides lubrication.
  • Kapha factors are all the lubrication agents in joints (synovial liquid), vertebral discs, cerebrospinal fluid around and around the brain, pleural, etc.
  • Kapha is responsible for oily skin
  • Kapha is generally increased by oily foods, oily foodstuffs, and deep-fried food.
  • Cold is due to both Kapha Doshas and Vata Doshas.
  • Kapha is increased by cold food items like cucumbers, ice cream, and frozen food.
  • Heaviness – Kapha is known to have a strong influence on heavy people. Heaviness in the head is an example. Kapha is influenced by a heavy body or overweight.
  • Kapha’s body type is mild and viscous. They are prone to delay in feeling emotions, understanding, and delay in expressing them. These types of people take a lot longer to make decisions. He walks slowly.
  • Kapha is known for its smoothness and jelly-like qualities.
  • Kapha Dosha is known for his clarity. Although it may take some time for a Kapha person to fully understand and decide his beliefs, the majority of them will eventually do so. His sclera (white portion of the eye) is usually clear and white. There are no prominent blood vessels.
  • Kapha Dosha is responsible for stability and immobility. Kapha Dosha has a strong influence on stiffness. Kapha is influential in Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis)

Contribution of dosha in health:

  • For a person’s overall well-being and health, it is important to balance vata pitta and kapha.
  • It is quite natural that any changes in nature, whether good or bad are also felt in the body. Nature watches over all living things and protects them when they are in their peaceful form. 
  • Doshas also support the body and help to promote good health and balance.  Doshas that are take care of the welfare and well-being of one’s own body.

Three pillars that make up the human body are called doshas.

  • Doshas can be described as the three major pillars upon which the construction of the human body is supported and sustained. 
  • When we think about doshas, it is easy to see the importance of each pillar. These three doshas control all activities. 
  • These doshas can cause the collapse of our body and destruction, just as pillars can bring down your house when they are damaged.

Dosha balance is a sign of health, and dosha imbalance is a sign of disease:

  • The body is healthy when all three doshas are in a balanced individual and relative. They can cause diseases if there is a qualitative or quantitative imbalance.
  • Dosha balance can be used to determine if a person is healthy. Dosha imbalance can be described as an increase or decrease in doshas.
  • Although decreased doshas don’t cause disease, symptoms of their decrease can be seen. They can also cause imbalances in other doshas.
  • Vata can cause symptoms such as weakness, speech difficulties, and loss of consciousness to decrease. However, it can also increase kapha symptoms like indigestion, laziness and excessive salivation. This is an example relative imbalance of doshas.

When vitiated Doshas are removed, health can be restored.

If a person is suffering from a disease that is clearly caused by vitiated Doshas, the disease cannot be treated in its entirety unless all of the increased doshas have been expelled from their bodies by administering panchakarma (i.e. Body purifying treatments.

 Even small amounts of excess doshas can be left in the body and they will become more powerful on availability of etiological variables, get vitiated, damage tissues, and cause new diseases.

Other contributing factors to disease include weakness of tissues, imbalanced digestive fire, and formation of pathological toxins ama. This is due to weak digestion of foods in the stomach and blocking of channels.

Doshas, which are the main cause of disease in the body, are among many factors. Vitiated doshas would cause tissue damage, channel blockage, and health problems.


Dosha balance is the main element in maintaining overall health. Doshas play an essential role in maintaining a healthy body by balancing their levels. Balance of doshas is also a key factor in immunity. To stay healthy and fit one must take care of balancing these tridosha.

About Dr. Ranjana Kaushal

Dr. Ranjana Kaushal (MD Ayurveda) has 11 years of experience in the field of Ayurveda. Right now she is working as an Ayurveda consultant with Life Aveda. She has immense knowledge about herbs, their uses, and formulations. She has published articles related to many herbs and diseases in an international journal. She is also a degree holder in yoga and naturopathy. Read More..

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